What Is Kinetic Theory Of Gas?
|Kinetic Theory Of Gases– A Model Of Gases As Moving Particles
The Kinetic Theory Of Gas is a statistical model that precisely describes the materialistic behavior of gas. According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory Of Gas, “the submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules) that make up the gas are constantly moving in random motion, and that randomness arises due to the collision of molecules not only with each other but also with the sides of the wall of the container”.
History Of Kinetic Molecular Theory
Within one century, physicists around the globe started to recognize the kinetic theory of gases i.e modern view of matter as composed of small particles called atoms and molecules. In the year 1857, a German Chemist and Physicist August Krönig proposed his Kinetic-Gas Model, in which he explain the translational motion of particles; which was later modified by Rudolf Clausius a German-born Physicist and Mathematician who not only explained the translational motion of particles but also explained the rotational and vibrational motion of particles. In the year 1859, after examining the work of Clausius; a Scottish Scientist and Mathematical Physicist James Clerk Maxwell formulated his world-famous Maxwell Distribution of molecular velocities (This was the first-ever statistical law in physics) which was later generalized by Ludwig Boltzmann an Austrian physicist and philosopher into Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution.
Even after so many happenings, the 20th-century physicist believed that atoms are rather purely hypothetical construct; i.e atoms are not real. This dilemma that whether atoms are real or just a hypothetical construct was finally resolved by Albert Einstein in his 1905 papers. Einstein developed a diffusion formula by applying the statistical method and later that phenomenon to be known as Brownian motion.
Assumptions Of The Kinetic Theory
- All gases are made of molecules moving randomly in all possible directions.
- The size of a molecule is much smaller than the average separation between molecules.
- The molecules exert a force on each other and the wall of the container only at the time of the collision.
- The collision between particles and the wall of the container is perfectly elastic.
- The molecules obey Newton’s laws of motion.
- When the gas is left unhindered for sufficient time, it comes to the steady-state.
- Each molecule is treated identically to the other molecules and their results are obtained on the average using the statistical method.