In my view, if God actually had made this universe, he should have made all laws of physics a fundamental law. In other words, a law that is applicable in one scenario (let’s say classical approach), has to be applicable in other scenarios too (let’s say quantum approach). Sadly to say, that is not the case.
According to the latest research paper published in Physics Review-Journal, physicist Maximiliano Isi and his team have confirmed that the surface area of a black hole should always increase over time.
However, this law comes under direct conflict with one more proven law that says that the surface area of the black hole should decrease over time. Just to mention, both of these laws are theoretically written by the ultra-famous Stephan Hawkins in the early 1970s.
So, here is my question
Why one law says that area of a black hole should increase over time and another say it should decrease over time…!!! Why there is a contradiction between the two approaches. More importantly, which one of them is correct? Wanna Know? Keep reading…!!!!
Clash of the Titans
In the world of physics, there are only two titans. First, Einstein’s general theory – the physical laws of big objects. Second, Planck’s Quantum theory – the physical law for small objects. What’s happening here is quite interesting.
According to the law derived from general theory, the surface area of black holes should increase over time. A law in the world of physics goes by the name of the Black Hole Area Theorem.
On the other hand, a law derived from Quantum theory states that the surface area of the black holes should decrease over time. A law in the world of physics goes by the name of the Black Hole Evaporation theorem.
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The Blackhole evaporation theorem had been experimentally proven in 2019. Just like that, the black hole area theorem has been recently proven by a group of scientists.
Well, as per logical mind, only one of them has to be true. I mean, either the surface area of a black hole should increase over time. Or, it should decrease over time. There is no in-between…!!!
Black Hole Area Theorem
By definition, the black hole area theorem states that the surface area of black holes should always increase over time. Since this law also correlates with the Second law of thermodynamics, it has become the center of attraction to all astrophysicists across the globe. HOW?? Okay, let me explain…!!!
See, on one hand, the second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a closed system must always increase over time. On the other hand, the black hole area theorem states that the surface area of a black hole must always increase over time.
By combing both of the above statements, one can easily conclude that the black hole’s entropy is directly proportional to its surface area. Yeah Yeah, black holes do have entropy.
Maximiliano Isi to Live Science
During his interview with Live Science, lead author Maximiliano Isi, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology confirms that “A black hole’s surface area can’t be decreased, which is like the second law of thermodynamics. It also has conservation of mass, as you can’t reduce its mass, so that’s analogous to the conservation of energy.
He added that initially, people were like ‘Wow, that’s a cool parallel,’ but we soon realized that this was fundamental. Black holes have an entropy, and it’s proportional to their area. It’s not just a funny coincidence, it’s a deep fact about the world that they reveal.”
It Could Shrink too, but destined to expand
As per Hawkin’s argument, since nothing can exist inside of a black hole, there is no way the surface area of a black hole could decrease over time. However, there is one scenario when black holes could shrink too.
But for that to happen, the energy of the spin (rotating black hole) has to be greater than the mass of a lone black hole or two merging black holes. Lead author Maximiliano Isi argued that “you will make it spin more, but not enough to counterbalance the mass you’ve just added,” Isi said.
“Whatever you do, the mass and the spin will make it so that you end up with a bigger area.” Therefore, in order to prove this black hole area theorem as per the classical approach, Isi and his team tested this theory on the first-ever gravitational waves detected by LIGO in 2015.
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Test and Setup
In order to test this extraordinary theory, Isi and his team analyzed the merger of two black holes as they spiraled towards each other. Just to let you know, the data were taken from the first-ever gravitational waves detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in 2015.
The researchers simply split the gravitational wave data into two parts. Such that: before the merger of the two black holes. And, after the merger of the two black holes. What they basically wanted to know that the mass of the combined black hole (After the merger) would increase or decrease.
After scrutinizing the data, what they find out is that the surface area of the combined black is greater than that of the two initial black holes combined. Therefore, as a result, proving the black hole area theorem with a 95 percent of confidence level.
When Classical meets Quantum
This is where the contradiction appears to uphold. As per Stephan Hawkins, according to the law derived from quantum theory, a thermal bath of a faint mist of particles is always evaporating from the edge of the event horizon. A law in the world of physics is known as the black hole evaporation law. And, the radiation (or particles emitted) is known as the Hawkins Radiation.
So, what now?
The experimental data suggest that both of Hawkin’s laws are correct in their own approach. But, there is a catch. As per the quantum theory, the evaporation law is valid only for the longest time scale considered. Therefore, it does not violate the black hole area theorem (Classical Approach) on the short-term time scale.
To conclude, I would simply say that under a normal time scale (short-term), there is no violation. However, over a longer period of time, the law is violated. Not to mention, this contradiction has electrified the curiosity of astrophysicists across the globe with a number of different possibilities. What do you think? What’s next in line?
Take a look at: Wave Particle Duality – Physical Reality of Quantum Physics
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