Difference Between Ionic and Covalent Bonds in Tabular Form

Spread the love

In physical engineering and chemical science, there are mainly two types of chemical bonds. These are Ionic and Covalent bonds. Not to mention, apart from these two, there are two more types of chemical bonds. These are hydrogen and polar bonds. However, in this exclusive article, I am only going to explain the difference between ionic and covalent bonds.

The primary difference between ionic and covalent bonds is that an ionic bond is a permanent transfer of valence electrons between two atoms. On the other hand, the covalent bond is sharing of electrons between two atoms. Before going into the deep discussion, let me give you a brief review of the two in a tabular form. Let’s dive right in!

 

Ionic Bond vs Covalent Bond

 Ionic BondsCovalent Bonds
1.Ionic bond occurs due to the permanent transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another.A covalent bond occurs due to sharing of electrons between two atoms.
2.Ionic bonding can only form between metals and non-metalsCovalent bonding can only form between non-metallic elements.
3.They generally have very high melting and boiling points.They generally have very low melting and boiling point.
4.Ionic compounds are solid at room temperature.Covalent compounds are sometimes liquid or sometimes in a gaseous state at room temperature.
5.To form an ionic bond, there has to be a very large difference in the value of electronegativity between the participating atoms.To form a covalent bond, there has to be an almost equal or very low difference in the value of electronegativity between the participating atoms.
6.Ionic bonds have high polarity.Covalent bonds have low polarity.
7.Ionic compounds do not have a definite shape.Covalent bonds have a definite shape.
8.Examples of ionic bonds include Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Potassium Oxide (K2O), etc.Examples of covalent bonds include Hydrochloric Acid (HCL), Ethene (C2H4), etc.
From the above difference between ionic and covalent bonds in tabular form, you got the exact overview of these two. However, in order to get to know them in detail, let us try to understand both of them in a detailed format. Keep reading!

 

 

What is Ionic Bond?

ionic-bonding-in-sodium-chloride-molecule
This is how an Ionic bond forms between sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl) atom. Image Credit: Viva Differences

An Ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs due to the permanent transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another. In fact, the atom that permanently loses electrons becomes a cation i.e positively charged ion.

On the other hand, the atom that gains electrons becomes an anion i.e negatively charged ion. That’s why an ionic bond is also known electrovalent bond.

Not to mention, for an ionic bond to form, there has to be a very large difference in the value of electronegativity between the participating atoms. That’s why ionic bonding can only form between metals and non-metals.

Highly Recommended: Ionic Bond Definition, Properties, Examples & Uses

 

Properties of Ionic Bond

There are so many properties of ionic bonds. Some of them are listed below:

  • By definition, an Ionic bond is non-directional in nature.
  • Ionic compounds are soluble in water and polar solvents.
  • Ionic compounds are insoluble in non-polar solvents.
  • They have the highest melting and boiling points.
  • They show good electrical and thermal conductivity.
  • Ionic bonds or electrovalent bonds are the strongest among all types of bonds.
  • They form due to the permanent transfer of electrons, etc.

Check Out: Amorphous Solid – Definition, Properties & Examples

Examples of Ionic Bond

If you think you can’t relate to Ionic bond examples in everyday life. Well, here is your chance to think again!

  • Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
  • Potassium Oxide (K2O)
  • Calcium chloride (CaCL2)
  • Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), etc.

 

Uses of Ionic Compounds

Compounds that form due to ionic bonding is known as Ionic Compounds. Again, If you think you can’t relate to the uses of ionic compounds in everyday life. Well, here is your chance to think again!

  • Sodium chloride as table salt
  • De-icing of roads after snowfall
  • As a preservative in cold storage
  • Water fluoridation, etc.

What is Covalent Bond?

double-covalent-bonding-in-carbon-dioxide-molecule
A typical example of Covalent bond, strictly speaking, an example of double covalent bond. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons

A covalent bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs due to the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms.

Not to mention, these types of chemical bonds can only occur between non-metallic elements having the same or almost equal electronegativity values.

In fact, due to the equal electronegativity value of both participating atoms, there is no transfer of electrons. Therefore, as a result, the formation of ions does not take place in covalent bonding.

Additionally, the participating pairs of electrons in covalent bonding are known as shared pairs or simply bonding pairs.

Must Read: Crystalline Solid – Definition, Types, Properties & Examples

 

Types of Covalent Bonds

Based on the number of shared electron pairs, by definition, a covalent bond can be further bifurcated into three types. Let us get to know them in detail.

Single Covalent Bond

When there is a formation of a covalent bond due to the sharing of single pair of electrons ( two electrons) between participating atoms, we call it a single covalent bond.

They are weaker and have a low density as compared to double and triple covalent bonds. Not to mention, they are more stable than the other types of covalent bonds. It is represented by a single dash (-). Additionally, examples of single covalent bonds include HCL, H2, etc.

Double Covalent Bond

When there is a formation of a covalent bond due to the sharing of double pair of electrons ( four electrons) between participating atoms, we call it a double covalent bond.

Editor’s Choice: Difference Between Crystalline and Amorphous Solid

They are stronger but less stable than a single covalent bond. It is represented by a double dash (=). Additionally, examples of double covalent bonds include CO2, O2, CL2, etc.

Triple Covalent Bond

When there is a formation of a covalent bond due to the sharing of triple pair of atoms (six electrons) between participating atoms, we call it a triple covalent atom.

They are the strongest but the least stable as compared to single and double covalent bonds. It is represented by a triple dash (≡). Additionally, the examples of triple covalent bonds include CN, N2, etc.

Highly Recommended: Covalent Bond – Definition, Types, Properties & Examples

 

Properties of Covalent Bond

There are so many properties of covalent bonds. Some of them are listed below:

  • By definition, the Covalent bond is directional in nature.
  • They have low melting and boiling points.
  • They show poor electrical and thermal conductivity.
  • Covalent compounds are insoluble in water.
  • Bonds are strong, therefore, a large amount of energy is needed to break them.
  • Covalent bonds are formed due to sharing of electrons.
  • Covalent compounds usually have a low enthalpy of vaporization or fusion, etc.

 

Examples of Covalent Bond

If you think you can’t relate to covalent bond examples in everyday life. Well, here is your chance to think again!

  • Nitrogen (N2)
  • Hydrogen (H2)
  • Ethene (C2H4)
  • Hydrochloric Acid (HCL)
  • Ethyne (C2H2)
  • Oxygen (O2), etc.

Must Read: Anion vs Cation – What’s the Difference??

At last, that’s it for this post. If you like this article, share it if you like, like it if you share it. You can also find us on Mix, Twitter, Pinterest, and Facebook.


Spread the love

I am a mechanical engineer by profession. Just because of my love for fundamental physics, I switched my career, and therefore I did my postgraduate degree in physics. Right now I am a loner (as ever) and a Physics blogger too. My sole future goal is to do a Ph.D. in theoretical physics, especially in the field of cosmology. Because in my view, every aspect of physics comes within the range of cosmology. And I love traveling, especially the Sole one.

Leave a Comment